CREMATION OPTIONS AND FUNERAL TRADITIONS

In recent times, the practice of cremation has gained an increase in prominence as a preferred alternative to conventional interment. Be that as it may, still many conservatives cling on to the long-established funerary customs they are familiar with. However, there are sound reasons as to why others choose this rite over ordinary burial, just as there are ways to do so and still be able to cater to tradition.

funeralAmong the reasons why cremation has become so favored is the concern over burial costs. One may not wish to saddle their families with the burden of paying for an expensive funeral, and thus they see having their remains cremated as the only viable cost-effective option. Some reasons are personal, such as wanting to remain near their loved ones even after death. There are those who belong to religions wherein such a ritual is considered customary.

And then there are those with rather unconventional reasons for their choice. Some would cite environmental factors; there is only so much space left in the ground for a grave to take up after all. There are even those who wish to have their ashes used as soil to plant flowers or trees in. Others are philosophical; there are those who request to have their remains be scattered out to sea or to be as one with the wind, a symbolic act of newfound freedom from the cares of life.

In deference to the traditionalists, cremation does not necessarily mean that a proper funeral is to be dispensed with –

There are crematories that have adjoining funeral chapels, and the deceased’s family has the choice of holding a funeral service before or after the body is to be cremated. Holding a funeral this way is actually an advantage. A body cannot be kept lying in repose for too long before decomposition sets in. But by having the ashes interred instead, it allows more time to plan the memorial service and get everyone together in due time to pay their final respects.

In the case of a post-cremation funeral, the departed’s ashes can be placed inside a traditional casket. Alternatively, the remains may also be placed in a special casket, which is not as costly as a regular one due to its simple design and the different materials used in building it. They can come in various styles depending on the taste and preference of the customer.

funeralIn lieu of a casket, the ashes of the deceased will of course be placed inside an urn. They come in many kinds, from hardwood to ceramic, and even bronze or steel. If one is undecided on the style of urn to go for, it’s best to put the remains in a temporary container for the time being. Temporary urns are also used if the ashes are not meant to be kept in possession, such as if they are intended to be scattered. As such, it is not recommended to put them on permanent display. These containers can also come in different materials, such as plastic or sheet bronze, and some even come in the form of a silk bag.

In anticipating the event of their passing, there are different reasons why many choose to be cremated rather than buried. But for the most part, it comes down to what they think is practical for them and the loved ones that they will leave behind. Old customs need not be discarded entirely, though. Do keep in mind that there is always room for a traditional funeral service before or after cremation, and at a lower cost than in a typical burial. For more services click www.gentrygriffey.com.

Simple PCB Assembly Process

A printed circuit board (PCB) is the most widely used mechanical support and electrical connection of electronic parts of modern day circuits. Its base is made of a non-conductive substrate material, most of the time fiberglass, phenolic, or epoxy. Copper is laminated onto the substrate to serve as its conductor, then a soldermask is also coated onto the copper to form conductive paths and pads based on a detailed designer-made pattern.

Pcb AssemblyThere are three types of PCBs available in the market. These are referred to according to the number of copper conducting layers each one possesses. They are: Single sided, double sided, and multi-layer. For double sided and multi-layer, the different layers are linked to one another through plated holes named vias.

PCB assembly is the process of creating a PCB by bonding or laminating a substrate, conductor, and soldermask together, and adding a silkscreen layer on the outermost surface for labeling and as guidance mechanism in mounting the different components of an electronic circuit based on a specific design.

Once all the parts are soldered, mounted, and ready to be used, the printed circuit board is now similarly termed as a PCB assembly.

Two Ways to Mount Components

There are two ways to mount electronic components onto a PCB, and they are called through-hole technology and surface-mount technology. The most widely-used method at present is the surface-mount, as parts are directly soldered onto the surface of the board. This makes surface-mount technology ideal for the more compact designs that modern gadgets have today.

The through-hole method uses protruding lead legs from electronic parts to be inserted through holes in the circuit board. Afterwards, the legs are soldered onto it on the other side. This process greatly limited the space that can be utilized in a single PCB, but is still occasionally being used today for simpler circuit designs.

The PCB Assembly Process

The modern process of making a PCB is actually quite sophisticated, especially when fabricating the contemporary designs of today. Most of them need specialized tools and equipment and should be done in an extremely clean room for faster and more efficient mass production.

However, simpler designs can still be made manually, and there are many electronic enthusiasts who fabricate their own PCBs at home using practical DIY techniques.

Four layers are laminated together to form a single PCB. Starting from the center of the board, they are: substrate, conductor (typically copper), soldermask, and silkscreen.

Below is a simplified step-by-step process of making a PCB that is applicable for beginners to easily understand its concept.

1.  After preparing the substrate, a copper layer is then coated on top of it. The copper layer is placed depending on the type of method used in creating the circuit pattern. The two methods are either additive or subtractive.

2. In the subtractive method, the entire surface of the substrate is laminated with copper, and then the undesired portions are etched away. The additive method is the opposite as the copper pattern is directly electroplated on the substrate.

3. After the copper pattern is securely bonded with the substrate, a solder mask is then laminated onto the board. This thin layer of polymer protects the board from oxidation and keeps the conductive parts of the circuit from touching one another.

4. A silkscreen layer is then coated on top of the board. This layer contains labels, names, designators, and sometimes specific instructions, on the parts that are to be mounted on the PCB assembly.

5. The next step is the mounting of circuit components, which, as mentioned above, can either be through-hole or surface-mount.

6. For through-hole, small holes are first drilled on the board where the components are to be inserted.

7. For surface-mount, drilling is no longer needed as the parts are directly soldered onto the circuit board.

8. After all the components are mounted, then the PCB assembly is finished and ready to be used for its intended purpose.

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